Supercapacitors: Basics, Functionality, and Applications They\'re Suited For
A supercapacitor (SC), also known as a “supercap”, is used for applications that need quick charging and discharging solutions instead of long term energy storage. This device is used in automobiles, buses and trains. SCs are designed to allow high capacitance with low voltage limits. Here are some of the most important points to know about supercapacitors.
Anatomy of a Supercapacitor
The main components of an SC are two electrodes and an electrolyte. Essentially, it's a double-layer capacitor. The materials require a high surface area to build up multiple electric charges. When voltage runs through an SC it produces two separate charge layers on the surface. There is a smaller separation between these layers than in traditional capacitors.
One of the primary reasons for supercapacitors is that they store significantly more energy than electrolytic capacitors. Another major advantage to supercapacitors is that they can generate a charge faster than batteries, as well as handle more charge and discharge cycles than rechargeable batteries. While typical batteries take time to recharge, supercapacitors can recharge in a matter of seconds, and can store up to millions of cycles of high-power electricity.
Another advantage to SC is they have a low leakage rate and work well for operations from 1.8V to 2.5V. They are also durable, lasting up to 20 years. Reducing capacity of an SC to 80 percent after the first decade will help extend its lifespan. SCs deliver high load currents and fast charging due to their low equivalent series resistance (ESR).
Supercapacitors of the Future
Many equipment manufacturers are moving in the direction that supercapacitors will someday replace rechargeable batteries due to nanotechnology properties. This vision is possible in theory and is already taking shape in certain industries, such as networked energy storage. An emerging trend in micro-supercapacitors that have the ability to bend, makes them useful for wearables and IoT applications. New innovations in this area include glass, silicon and paper substrates for solid-state micro-supercapacitor materials.