Single Phase Transformers: Operating Principles & Applications
Transformers are widely used in electronic components because they can convert voltages from one power level to another without affecting frequency. For this reason they are commonly used in household appliances. Even though there are a variety of different types of transformers, they are all based on the concept of an enclosure designed to shield electromagnetic fields, known as Faraday's Cage. Here are details on a single-phase transformer and how it protects electrical equipment.
How a Single-Phase Transformer Works The single-phase transformer is an electronic component that operates on a single-phase alternating current, as the voltage cycle occurs within a unified time phase. It is commonly used to lower long distance signals for both light-commercial and residential electronic devices. Here are the steps involved with this process:
external AC power generates an alternating electromagnetic field through the primary winding
the electromagnetic field collapses in the iron core, linking the flux in both windings
power is induced through the secondary winding connected to a load at 60 Hz
Faraday's Law determines the induced voltage and amperes, which can be modified by the nature of the primary and secondary windings
external radio interference (RFI) is shielded to protect electronic equipment
Primary and secondary windings are usually made of insulated copper wire and must be isolated from the iron core, which has high permeability. The highest voltage that can be used for single-phase is controlled by utility companies and industrial regulations. Before deciding on whether to use single-phase or three-phase transformers, you should check the manufacturer's specification on using the electronic components, or consult with an electrical expert.Applications
step-down localized power distribution
television sets to regulate voltage
low voltage electronic devices
step-up power in home inverters
non-urban areas where electrical demand is lower
commercial and residential lighting and heating equipment
Conclusion When deciding on whether to use a single-phase or three-phase transformer, you should consider the operating frequency range, voltage rating of the windings, power rating, secondary current rating and temperature requirements. A key advantage to single-phase vs. three-phase transformers is lower cost. Three-phase transformers are used in high power systems, while single-phase transformers are more appropriate for lighter equipment.